Basically,in Term 3, we were taught the different cell parts and their functions, osmosis and diffusion, the digestion journey (in the human body), photosynthesis and lastly, the various respiration processes (aerobic and anaerobic respirations).

Here are some notes and questions during Term 3:

Cells:
Animal Cell:
An animal cell contains many parts that works together to survive.

Functions:
Cell membrane: Allows certain substances to enter and exit the cell (stopping the rest), and also maintains its shape and prevents its content from oozing out
Vacuoles: Contains dissolved gases, food particles and excretory products
Cytoplasm: Chemical reactions take place to provide the cell with the necessary energy and substances
Nucleus: Controls the cell activities
Chromosomes: (in the nucleus) Contains genes
Ribosomes: (in the cytoplasm) Provides proteins for the cell (protein synthesisers)
Mitochondria: (in the cytoplasm) Produces energy for the cell
external image anatomy.GIF
From: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/

Plant Cell:
Similarly, a plant cell also contain many parts that work together, however, comparing with a typical animal cell, there is a few differing cell parts.

Functions:
Cellulose Cell Wall: Supports the cell, giving it a regular shape
Cell membrane: Allows certain substances to enter and exit the cell (stopping the rest), and also maintains its shape and prevents its content from oozing out
Vacuoles: Filled with cell sap (contains substances such as deissolved sugars and dissolved salts) and keeps the cell turgid by taking in water
Cytoplasm: Chemical reactions take place to provide the cell with the necessary energy and substances
Nucleus: Controls the cell activities
Chromosomes: (in the nucleus) Contains genes
Chloroplasts: tiny disc-like structures that contains chlorophyll which traps light to allow the plant to make food during photosynthesis
Ribosomes: (in the cytoplasm) Provides proteins for the cell (protein synthesisers)
Mitochondria: (in the cytoplasm) Produces energy for the cell
external image anatomy.GIF
From: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/

Different Cells:
Guard Cell: Controls the opening of the stomata which allows gaseous exchange between the leaf and its surroundings

external image image011.jpg
From: http://leavingbio.net/transport%20of%20materials%20in%20a%20flowering%20plant.htm

Fat Cell: Stores fats for future usages (Note: number of fat cells does not decrease even if you lose weight- its the cell volume that changes)

external image lipocytes-fat-cells.jpg
From: http://www.proteanservices.com/2011/03/new-research-on-fat-cells-may-prevent-obesity/

Nerve Cell: With dendrites (to feel), the nerve cells can quickly send messages (axoms) to the brain

external image nerve.jpg
From: http://www.mstrust.org.uk/atoz/nerve.jsp

Root Epidermal Cell: Have root hairs to increse the surface area to allow more minerals and water to be absorbed

external image roothairs.GIF
From: http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/ecotree/root/roota.htm

Red Blood Cell: Flat and biocave, they have large surface area to allow rapid diffusion of gases. They contains haemoglobin that carries oxygen (Note: low level of haemoglodin may cause anemia or heavy panting when running)

external image wtdv030829.jpg
From: http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Education-resources/Teaching-and-education/Big-Picture/All-issues/The-Cell/Image-galleries-Aspects-of-imaging/WTDV030832.htm

Cells to Tissues to Organs to Systems

Plant Tissues:
Vascular: Carries food (phloem) and water (xylem) to different parts of the plant
Dermal: On the surface opf the plant, protecting the plant from injuries and from drying up
Ground: Mainly in stems, used to support and strengthen the plant

Organs:
Different tissues work together to form an organ

Diffusion:
Defination: The net movement of atoms / molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

Characteristics:
- Uniformly distributed (homogenous)
- Concentration on both side is at the equilibrium

*concentration is the amount of particles per unit volume

Osmosis:
Defination: The net movement of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane, from a region of higher concentration of water molecules to a region of lower concentration of water molecules

Characteristics:
- Uniformly distributed (homogenous)
- Concentration on both side is at the equilibrium

Types of Solutions:
- Isotonic: Ratio of water moelcules to the solute molecules is 1:1
- Hypotonic: Ratio of water molecules to the solute molecules is 2:1
- Hypertonic: Ratio of water molecules to the solute molecules is 1:2

external image cl9ch5fig1.jpg
From: http://cbse-notes.blogspot.sg/2012/04/class-9-ch5-cellfundamental-unit-of.html
Note: The hypotonic version of the animal cell should be "Lysed".

Enzymes:
Amylase: Breaks starch into maltose (Present in Mouth and Small Intestine)
Maltase: Breaks maltos down into glucose (Present in Small Intestine)
Protease: Breaks down proteins into amino acids (Present in Stomach, Small Intestine)
Lipase: Breaks down fats into glycerol and fatty acids (Present in Small intestine)

Alimentary Canal:
- Mouth
- Oesophagus
- Stomach
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
- Rectum
- Anus

Digestive System:
- Mouth
- Oesophagus
- Stomach
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
- Rectum
- Anus
- * Salivary Glands
- * Liver
- * Gall Bladder
- * Pancreas

Mouth:
Breaks down large food pieces into smaller food pieces, increasing the surface area exposed to digestive enzymes.
Contains amylase that only breaks down a small portion of stach into maltose.

Oesophagus: (gullet)
It contains no enzymes but is used to transport food from the Mouth into the Stomach through the contractions and relaxations pattern known as the perisyalsis.
external image oesophagus-cardia-anatomy-diagram-imaios_imagelarge.jpg
From: http://www.imaios.com/Media/Images/e-anatomy/mediastinum-anatomy-illustrations/oesophagus-cardia-anatomy-diagram-imaios
Stomach:
Has elastic walls for expanding to contain a large meal.
Contains digestive enzymes, such as gastric juice which is a mixture of hydrocloric acid and proteases . The hydrocloric acid kills the bacteria in the food and provides a suitable acidic condition in the Stomach for the proteases to work on.
external image stomach.gif
From: http://genericlook.com/anatomy/Stomach/
Small Intestine:
Contains bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice.
Bile emulsifies fats by breaking them down into small droplets and increasing the total surface area to speed up the rate of digestion by the lipase.
Pancreatic juice containing amylase, proteases and lipase while intestinal juice contains maltase, proteases and lipase
The main product would be glucose, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids.
Have many villi lining at the wall of the Small Intestine to absorb the food into the bloodstream.

Large Intestine:
Absorbs water, mineral salts, vitamins and dietary fibres (prevents constipation) from the undigested food.

Rectum:
Stores the waste for dicharging.


external image smallbowelanatomy.jpg
From: http://www.sgul.ac.uk/depts/histopathology/DSL/DSL_gastrointestinal_tract/small_intestine.html

Photosynthesis:
Defination: The process which plants use carbon dioxide, water and light trapped by chlorophyll to make food in the form of glucose and oxygen

Word Equation: Carbon Dioxide + Water (with light and chlorophyll) = Glucose + Oxygen
Respiration:
Aerobic:
Defination: The process whereby glucose is broken down in the prescence of oxygen to release large amount of energy in living cells.

Word Equation: Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

Anearobic:
Defination: The process whereby food substances are broken down with the absence of oxygen.

Disadvantage: It produces lesser energy as compared to areobic respiration.

Word Equation: (human) Glucose = Lactic Acid + Energy
(yeast) Glucose = Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy

Class Test 3:
Results: 29 / 45
Grade: B4

Again! Reflections Time...!
Teachings:
As usual, the teaching content increased a lot, thus I had a harder time trying to digest all the knowledge. However, this is made worse as I still have not yet to fully understand several topics in the previous term. I hope that I can catch up with the syllabus fast enought, at least by Term 4...

Test:
AS USUAL, I am sad again, not only I failed too keep up with my promise again... but also scraped myself off from any possible chance of exemption... I think I should have spent more time revising and trying to fully understand the contents taught (maybe do summery notes after each topic taught)... all I can o now is to embrace and prepare myself for the EOY exam... that exmaination MUST be my best of the year.. (hopefully)...thank you I am off to emo..